SYRIAN TURKMEN

Syrian Turkmen

 


Syrian Turks (Syrian Turkman or Syrian Turkmen) are Syrian citizens of Turkish descent, who have been living in the Syrian provinces of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria.
In the late 11th century, Syria was conquered first by the Seljuk Turks. After Seljuk Empire was separated into four parts, Malikshah´s brother, Tutush, established the Syrian Seljuk State in 1079 Syria was reigned by the Seljuks of Syria till 1117 and then Artuqids, Zengids, Ayyubids and Mamluk Sultanate governed the region.
Syria was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Selim I in 1516 after defeating the Mamlukes at the Battle of Marj Dabiq near Aleppo in northern Syria. According to the population records of Ottoman Empire in 1518, the total population of Aleppo province was 54.276, and 36.217 was of Turkmen population.
Turkmen came to Syria in several migration waves. Sometimes, the Seljuks and the Mamelukes living in the area adopted the Turkmen in their armies, and some Turkmen became aristocrats. Linda Cichlr wrote about these Turkmen aristocratic families in her book about the city of Damascus.

When the Arab Spring leapt into Syria in March 2011, it caused social dynamics that had been covered up for a long time to really start emerging. One of these dynamics concerns the Syrian Turkmen, a group that is especially significant for Turkey, as they are a related society. Syrian Turkmen are trying to distinguish themselves these days as a group that will be an influential actor in whatever new political structures emerge in Syria. But the fact that they have not been organized for years and years, and that they live separated and broken off from Turkey, means that they face the risks of not only losing their language, but their identity as well.
There are around 1.5 million Turkmen who speak a Turkic language living in Syria today, and about 2 million more who have forgotten their native tongue. When one considers the heterogeneous character of Syria’s social fabric, these numbers are quite significant, especially when you think about their potential effect on national politics. The Turkmen who have forgotten their original language live quite aware of their identities, but have also embraced and become one with the language and culture of the region in which they live. Those Turkmen who tend to live in smaller social groups have largely become Arab, culturally speaking. Most Syrian Turkmen are members of the Sunni Hanefi sect. There are very few who are Alevi. Linguistically, the language spoken by Syrian Turkmen is very close to Turkey’s Turkish.
Most Syrian Turkmen live in Lazkiye (these are the Bayır-Bucak Turkmen), Humus, Hama, Aleppo and outside of Damascus. There are also the Golan Turkmen, who used to live in and around Kuneytra. Because of the Israeli invasion, this group had to spread all over the country. There are also very limited numbers of Syrian Turkmen living in and around Tartus, Rakka, Idlib and Dera.
Though there have been fluctuations from time to time, in general, there has never really been any consistent sense of political nationalism among the Syrian Turkmen. There is, on the other hand, a reactionary and cultural sense of nationalism among them. The strict structure of the Syrian system has generally prevented any politicization of Turkmen movements. Despite this, this most recent uprisings in Syria have also seen a rising Turkmen nationalist movement. They appear to be not only trying to obtain their own rights, but also discover where their identities lie within the framework of Syria, as well as prove their very existence to the rest of society.
The national uprising in Syria provides an important opportunity for Syrian Turkmen.
If the move towards a revolution in Syria turns out to be successful, a civil democratic system may emerge. In such an atmosphere, the greatest expectation of Syrian Turkmen is to be counted in a new constitution as one of the important groups making up Syrian society. In addition to this, other expectations include things like political and constitutional reforms, a transition to a multi-party system, the inclusion of Turkmen in the process of producing a new constitution and recognition of Turkmen as an official language in regions where there are heavy Turkmen populations.
Assimilation Syrian Turkmen´s
In the First World War to get the help of Arabs, the coalition powers started to introduce the nationalism
ideology in the Arab community against the Turkish identity of the Ottomans.
The pan-Arabic mentality grew rapidly. The Arabs started to hold the Turks responsible for the failure of Arabs to catch up with the development which took place in the world, particularly, in Europe. This led to the development of severe antipathy toward the Turks. Many events have been took place which amplified this antipathy, particularly in Syria and Iraq.
. Failure of the Arabs in their conflict with Israel intensified further the pan-Arabic attitudes
Early appearance of socialism in Syria and later in Iraq, while on the contrary, Turkey leaned.
toward the capitalist camp. 1-
2-Passive Turkish policy toward the Turks living in the POEFCs
3-Although the Turkmen communities of POEFCs tried to become accustomed to the newly found situation and accepted the new countries as homelands without creating any political uprising or disturbing the political quietness, they have remained to be the goal of the assimilation policies. Each of the factors mentioned above increased further the suppression and added an additional burden on the Syrian Turkmen´s in Syria.
The Anti-Turkish strategy has been established as an official policy of the state in these two countries. The Turkmen´s are continuously underestimated. They are included in the Arab Sunni majority in Syria and considered Arabs. They could never register their nationality as Turkmen in the censuses and the government never recognized their existence in Syria
The assimilation policy, which, applied to the Turkmen´s of Iraq, reached its peak under Saddam’s regime, was applied to the Syrian Turkmen´s much earlier in the third decade of the last century. They have been deprived of all the national and cultural rights. They have no school to teach their children in their mother.
The prevention of introduction of any publication which is written in Turkish such as newspapers, journals and books had deprived Syrian Turkmen of reading in their mother language. Furthermore, the possession of such publication was considered an offence and considered treason. The cinemas cannot show Turkish films.
In the forties, Turkish regions were exposed to many raids by Arabs. On 21 July 1945, Kebere, the village of Bucag sub-district, was exposed to an incursion. attack took place in the Salmir village of the Bayir-Bucak district . In this way, the Turkmen villages in the Latakia province: Kaynarca, Cabitli, Kandilcik, Belveren, Canacik, Karaagil, Gundesli, Kasap, Colturman, and the Turkmen villages in the Aleppo province: BelwaMirhan, Tashlihuyuk, Hawahuyuk , Jobanbey, Halisa, Nabgha,Miraza shahid ,Karpijli, and Zayyatli, Karun, Mahzetli, Yashli, Caralveren, Kurtveren, Medene, Sheyhyahaya, Camusveren, Dedenoglu, Kurudere and Kirkmagara have been partially evacuated by the Turkmen´s and were inhabited by Arabs.it happened under the Asad regime in Syria: hundreds of Turkmen town names were changed in Arabic names.
The communal representation of the Syrian Turkmen in the parliament was deliberately reduced after independence and they were not allowed to be represented in the Syrian parliament in the 1954 election. In 1953 the communal system was completely abolished. Further legislation eliminated their
personal status. They are prevented from engaging in military and security sectors. Turkmen were not given passports. They were banned from being appointed in the governmental offices. It is forbidden to organize a concert for Turkmen singers. Establishment of cultural, social or sportive associations was not allowed and their request in 2005 was rejected. Their education status is inferior to the Arabs.
The children who did not learn Arabic until the primary school have really difficulty at school.
Through the legislation of land reform in 1958 the basically agricultural Syrian Turkmen community lost the vast majority of their lands, particularly in the Aleppo province, which were transferred later to the Arabs.
The restriction of tobacco agriculture harmed the Turkmen´s more than the other communities. The Turkmen´s were also deprived of the governmental support to the farmers, which constituted an important sum in socialist Syria.
The Turkmen´s of Syria gradually started to uncover their nationality to avoid deprivation of their rights as citizens. It is difficult to approximate the size of the Turkmen community which was assimilated in the Syrian Arabic community. Their large number can be inferred from the Turkmen´s family names of thousands of intelligentsia, merchants, officers, and other politicians, for example, Kerkchi, Kashikchi, Turkman, Kel Mohammed,Turkmani, Kalaji,Kuwetli, Bektash and Chichekli.
The Beydili turkmen´s tribes, who are partially assimilated, prefer now to talk Arabic over Turkish. The tribes of Beydili Turkmen´s are now totally Arabıfıed in the Raqqa region. The suppressive agricultural policy of Syrian governments had forced the predominantly agricultural Turkmen community to work in severely hard sectors.
As happened in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, large numbers of Syrian Turkmen´s immigrated collectively to Turkey in 1945, 1951, 1953, 1967 apart from those who cross the border illegally and continuously.
After the building of a network of dams on the Euphrates and reaching the Israeli-Turkish military agreement in the 1990s, the political pressure has been intensified on the Turkmen´s of Syria, particularly those whose relatives live or study in Turkey. Many Turkmen intellectuals were arrested, even those who were members of the ruling Ba’ath party. Twenty active members of the Latakia Turkmen Bayir-bucak.

Aleppo Region


Aleppo City: Albab

Turkish Names Arabic names

Çobanbey…………………………………..…………..... El Rai
Kalkım………………………………………………...…. El Nahda
Ufuk…………………………………….……………...... El Vakıf
Doyuran ………………………………….…………...….El Toyran
Edebet ……………………………………………….…...Hadabat
Alıçı ……………………………………..…….…………Tel Atiya
Mazıçı………………………………..……………..……El Amiriye
Sekizler………………………………..………………… El Musemmene
Paltacık……………………………..……….………...… El Zahra
Hava Hüyük ………………………….………..…….…. Tel Hava
Öküz Öldüren ………………………………………..…. El Verde
Aşnenın Harabası ………………….………………....… Mazrat Haj Vali
Buzluça ……………………………………..……….…. Selce
Tililih ………………………….…………..……………. Tililih
Babı Leylim…………………………………………...... Bab Leymun
Juppın ……………………………………………….…. Juppin
koçalı ……………………………………….………….. El Misene
Memilli…………………………………….…………… Um El Sedeye
Zılıf …………………………………………….….……. Zuluf
Kersenli…………………………………….…….……… El kersenli
Ayyaşa ………………………………………..…………. El Ayyaşa
Halil Oğlu …………………………………..…….…….. El Haliliye
Haji Veli ………………………………………………… Haj Vali
Çörten Hüyük………………………………..……..…… Tel Mizab
Taş Kapı ………………………………………………….. Bab El Hacar
Halsa …………………………………………………….. halisa
Arapçordik …………………………………………….. El Eyubiye
Askerin Harabesi …………………………………….…. Hirbit Asker
Sinsile …………………………………………………… Sinsile
Mulla Yakup ……………………………………………Şih Yakup
Boğaz ……………………………………………………. Boğaz
Sandı ……………………………………………………. Sendi
Kabaren ……………………………………………….….. El Eseriyye

Aleppo City: Jarabulus

Zügara ………………………………………………….. Zügara
Kantara ………………………………………………… Kantara
Belva Mirhan ………………………………………….. Selva
Yağmacı ………………………………………………..El Mugira
Arap Aziz ……………………………………………….. Arap Ezze
Gındıra …………………………………………………. Gındıra
Boz Hüyük ……………………………………….…… Tel Agbar
Zugara …………………………………………………. Tel Cimel
Gubut Türkmen ……………………………………….. Gubba
Haydar Başa …………………………………………… Haydar Başa
Debis …………………………………………………… Debis
Kanlı kuyu …………………………………………….. Cubul Dem
Kadılar ………………………………………………… El Kadi
Mirze ……………………………………………………. Mirza Şehit
Kurucu Hüyük …………………………………………. Tel Kebir
Amarine ………………………………………………… Amarine
Dügünük……………………………………………….. Dügünük
Taşlı Hüyük …………………………..………………..Tel Haçar
Beliz …………………………………..…………….….. Bilis
Sipahiler ……………………………..………………… El Vursen
Yıldız …………………………………………………… El Niçme
Gındırıya ………………………….…………………….. El Gındırıya
Zirbe …………………………………………………….. Zirbe
Kullu ………………………………….…………………. El Kuliya
Nabgah ………………………………….………………. Nabgah
Avşariyye ……………………………………………….. Avşariyye
Kara Göz ………………………………..………………. Eyn El Suvde
Taflı …………………………………….…………………Tafli
Kerpiçli ………………………………….……………….. Tel Ali

Aleppo City: Munbij

Beş Çurın …………………………………………….….. Beş Çurın
Ağ Taş………………………………………………….. Haçar El Abyad
Çubbul Arus ……………………………………………. Çubbul Arus
Çubbul Kader …………………………………………. Çubbul Kader
Hammem Sagir…………………………………………. Hammem Sagir
Boz Geyikli …………………………………………….. Boz Geyikli

Aleppo City: Azaz


Barak Atlı …………………………………………………. Baragite
Elbil ……………………………………………………… Elbil
Kara Köprü……………………………………………… Kara Köprü
Tel Ar …………………………………………………….Tel Ar
Çekkeh…………………………………………………….. Çekkeh
Harçele…………………………………………………… Harçele
Raeil……………………………………………………… Raeil
Muarin ……………………………………………………. Muarin
Saman Dere………………………………….…………… Sandara
İğde ……………………………………………………… Zeyzefun
Şiferin……………………………………………………. Şiferin
Tel Şeir……………………………………………………Tel Şeir
Kefer Kan ……………………………………………… Kefer Kan
Mearıt Artig ……………………………………………. Mearıt Artig
Telelin ……………………………………………………Telelin
Kara Mezer……………………………………………… Kara Mezer
Şemmerin………………………………………………… Şemmerin
Suçu …………………………………………………….. El Selama
Muarrast El Hatib……………………………………… Muarrast El Hatib
Yeni Yapan ……………………………………………..Yeni Yapan
Delha ……………………………………………….…. Delea
Türkmen Bareh …………………………………………. Türkmen Bareh
Uveylin …………………………………………………. Uveylin
Havar ……………………………………………………. Havar Kılıs
Gidriş……………………………………………………. Gidriş
Çarıs …………………………………………………… Çarıs
Migidin ………………………………………………… Migidin
Bahvarta…………………………………………………. Bahvarta
Meryemin ………………………………………………. Meryemin

Aleppo City: Afrin


Çeleme…………………………………………………. Çeleme
İki dam ………………………………………………….. İki dam
Muarrata ……………………………………………… Muarrata

Aleppo City: Ayn Arab (Arap Pınarı)

Göbek Heyyele……………………………………….. Heyyele
Görük…………………………………………………. Görük

 

Humus Region

Turkish Names Arabic names

Tensin ………………………………………………….Tensin
El Kacer………………………………………………… Gırnata
Kisin ………………………………………………..…. Kisin
Hazur ………………………………………………….. Hazur
Arcun ……………………………………………….... Arcun
Kala …………………………………………………… Burç kayi
Hırbıt Sude…………………………………………...… Hırbıt Sude
Telbise ………………………………………………….. Telbise
Rebiea ……………………………………………..…… Rebiea
Kefer Nen……………………………………………… Kefer Nen
El Hüseyniye ……………………………………….…. El Hüseyniye
Cusey…………………………………………………… Cusey
Hulih…………………………………………………… Hulih
Hırbit El Tine …………………………………………. Hırbit El Tine
Teldu ……………………………………………………Teldu
Hubub El Rih………………………………………….. Hubub El Rih
Mesel Hule…………………………………………… Mesel Hule
Ganto ………………………………………………….Ganto
Umulkasab……………………………………………..Umulkasab
Zare……………………………………………………. El Zare
Hasırciye ……………………………………………… Hasırciye
Muhtariye…………………………………………….. Muhtariye
Şabeniye ………………………………………………… Şabeniye
Zafereni……………………………………………….… Zafereni
Nizariye ……………………………………………..….. Nizariye
Harıt Türkmen …………………………………………... Harıt Türkmen
Düğerli……………………………………………………. El Dukeryye
El kırad Dasniye…………………………………………. El kırad Dasniye
Kinyit El Asi…………………………………………….. Kinyit El Asi
Kara hılı…………………………………………………. Akrab
Umulkasab ……………………………………….……..Umulkasab
Dar El kebir……………………………………………… Dar El kebir
Sinisil ……………………………………………………Sinisil
Gızhıl ……………………………………………………Gızhıl
Semekiyet ……………………………………………… semmekiyet
Semalil …………………………………………………. Semalil
Cubeb El Zeyit ………………………………………… Cubeb El Zeyit
Nizariye …………………………………………………. Nizariye
Fırıklus…………………………………………………… Fırıklus
Sabuniye ………………….…………………………….. Sabuniye
Bıdede …………………………………………………... Bıdede
Sayid …………………………………………………….. Sayid
Meşrue Geneye ………………………………………… Meşrue Geneye
Baruha ………………………………………………….. Baruha
Resım Bagıl …………………………………………….. Resım Bagıl
Tel Keleh ……………………………………………… Tel Keleh
Haret …………………………………………………… Haret
Baruha …………………………………………………. Baruha
Tirmali …………………………………………………. Tirmali
Zimemir ……………………………………………….. Zimemir
Cusi ………………………………………………………Cusi
Gacer garbi ……………………………………………. Mercıl Kıt
Kurtman …………………………………………………. Kurtman

Latakia Region
Turkish Names Arabic names

Gebelli ……………………………………………………..Gebelli
Şeren ……………………………………………………… Hılva
Gülcük…………………………………………………… El Dura
Salır ………………………………………………………. Salır
Cüb ………………………………………………………. Cüb
Yukarı …………………………………………………. Karamanlı -
Murutly……………………………………………….… Murutly
Çemeren …………………………………………………. Şahrura
İsa Pinar …………………………………………………. İsa Pinar
Dervişen ……………………………………………….… Dervişen
Kara Bacak ……………………………………………….. Sude
Kepir ……………………………………………………… El Kabir
Yamadi …………………………………………………… Yamama
Nisbin………………………………………………………..Nisbin
Gantara……………………………………………………. Gantara
Günyeli…………………………………………………….. Günyeli
Hamitli ……………………………………………………. Hamitli
Sılayip Türkmen ………………………………………….. Sılayıp Türkmen
Katsal Maaf ………………………………………………. Katsal Maaf
Turunç …………………………………………………….. Umul Tuyur
Avanlı …………………………………………………… Beit Avan
Yukarı Almalı …………………………………………….. Tıfahiye Foganiye
Mılla Mahmutlu…………………………………………… El Mahmudiye
Fakıh Hasan………………………………………….…... Şih Hasan
Dağdağan………………………………………………… Dağdağan
Ferizli…………………………………………………….. Beit Feres
Kaymaz ………………………………………………….. Kaymaz
Keseçik ………………………………………………….. El Halidiye
Keren Gül ……………………………………………….. El Berki
Yumurcak ……………………………………………..… Yumurcak
Kesecik……………………………………………………. Kesecik
Saldıran………………………………………………….…Saldıran
Ayuşlu ……………………………………………….….... Ayuşlu
Rabiya ………………………………………………….…. Rabiya
Gök Dağ ……………………………………………….…. El Hadrae
Çanlı ………………………………………………………. Gameme
Akça Bayir …………………………………………………. Akça Bayir
Cüb Torus………………………………………………… Cüb Torus
Aşağı Karamanlı ………………………………………….. Aşağı Karamanlı
Rihaniyye ………………………………………………….. Rihaniyye
Kabaklı …………………………………………………….. Kabaklı
İse Beyli ………………………………………………..… İseviyye
Çükürçak ……………………………………………….… El Vadi
Aplaklı ………………………………………………….…. Beit Aplak
Kelez ……………………………………………………… Kelez
Çardaklı …………………………………………………… Beit Çardak
Yümüçak ………………………………………………….. Yümüçak
Gıbrıh …………………………………………………….... Ravda
Ümmetli ……………………………………………………. Ümmetli
Baldırlı ………………………………………………..…… Baldırlı
Burç İslam …………………………………………….…… Burç İslam
Türkmenli ……………………………………………….…. El Temime
Zinzif …………………………………………………..…… Zinzif
Mılıklı ………………………………………………………. Beit Mılık
Aşağı Almalı ……………………………………………….. Tıfahiye Tahtaniye
Bedruse……………………………………………………. Bedrusiye
Saray ……………………………………………………….. Saray
Keşiş…………………………………………………………. El Gasseniyye
Çamırlı……………………………………………………….. Rihan
Çirit Ali…………………………………………………….. Şekiriye
Fakılı Beit …………………………………………………….Vali
Meydançık ………………………………………………… Meydançık
Gülcak ……………………………………………………….. Gülcak
Çalkamalı …………………………………………………… Çalkamalı
Kalabah ………………………………………………………Kalabah
Filik………………………………………………………….. Filik

 

 

Hama Region

Turkish Names Arabic names

Tirimis ……………………………………………………….Tirimis
Hırbınefsıh……………………………………………….…. Hırbınefsıh
Caciyeh ………………………………………………….… Caciyeh
Circisi……………………………………………………… Circisi
Tıllıf …………………………………………………….…..Tıllıf
Hılleh …………………………………………………….... Hılleh
Dir Firdis ……………………………………………….….. Dir Firdis
Aşık Ali ………………………………………………….… Aşık Ali

Hama City: Selemiye

Muharam Tatani ……………………………………………. Muharam Tatani
Osmaniye …………………………………………………… Osmaniye
Uveir ……………………………………………………….. Uveir
Tel Sinan …………………………………………………. Tel Sinan
Tel Hasan Paşa……………………………………………. Tel Hasan Paşa
Kuputulhat………………………………………………… Kuputulhat
Ayin El Nısır ………………………………………………. Ayin El Nısır

Hama City: Misyaf

Beyyada ……………………………………………….….. Beyyada
Huveir Türkmen ……………………………………….…. Huveir Türkmen
Ayin Debiş ……………………………………………..…. Ayin Debiş
Hırmıl…………………………………………………..… Hırmıl
El Beydae …………………………………………….……. El Beydae
Beit Nater …………………………………………….…… Beit Nater
Beit Aslan …………………………………………….……. Beit Aslan
Gartman ……………………………………………………. Gartman

hama syria ile ilgili görsel sonucu

 

 

 

Golan (Kuneytra) Region

Turkish Names Arabic names

Eyn Ayşe …………………………………………………Eyn Ayşe
El Rizeniye……………………………………………… El Rizeniye
Sindiyene El Cedide …………………………………… Sindiyene El Cedide
Eyn El Sumsum………………………………………… Eyn El Sumsum
Eyn El Alak ……………………………………………. Eyn El Alak
Kefer Nefah …………………………………………… Kefer Nefah
Hafar…………………………………………………… Hafar
El Dababiyye…………………………………………. El Dababiyye
El Hışniyye…………………………………………….. El Hışniyye
Eyn Zivan…………………………………………..…. Eyn Zivan
El Kadiriye ……………………………………………..El Kadiriye
El Sindiyene ……………………………………….….. El Sindiyene
Eyn EL Kara…………………………………………….. Eyn EL Kara
El Elika……………………………………………….… El Elika
El Ahmediye ……………………………………………. El Ahmediye
El Mugir ……………………………………………..….. El Mugir
El Hüseyniye ……………………………………………. El Hüseyniye
Cuveize …………………………………………….…….. Cuveize
Mumsiye ……………………………………………..….. El Gasseniyye

 

Tartus Region

TARTUS ile ilgili görsel sonucu

Turkish Names Arabic names

Tartus City: Safite
Zok Türkmen Mitras
Bisitin …………………………………………..………… Bisitin
Beit Ahmet Fenus………………………………………… Beit Ahmet Fenus

 

Rakka Region

Turkish Names Arabic names

Tel Hamam ……………………………………………….. Tel Hamam
Hamam Türkmen Garbi ……………………………..…… Hamam Türkmen Garbi
Menara……………………………………………….…….. Menara
Rucim El Cahaş ……………………………………..……. Rucim El Cahaş
Doğaniye ………………………………………………….. Doğaniye
Tel Mendo ………………………………………….……..Tel Mendo
Kantara …………………………………………………… Kantara
Yargoy …………………………………………………… Yargoy
El Vasita ………………………………………….………. El Vasita
Cubul Arus ………………………………………..………. Cubul Arus
Hamam Türkmen Şarki ……………………………….….. Hamam Türkmen Şarki
Zeybagiye …………………………………………..…….. Zeybagiye
Demeşliye …………………………………………..…….. Demeşliye
Belva ……………………………………………..……….. Belva
El Azize …………………………………………..………. El Azize
Biratvan …………………………………………….…….. Biratvan
Sırt ……………………………………………………….. Sırt
Tel Fendır ……………………………………………..….Tel Fendır
Hırbıt Zirih …………………………………………….…. Hırbıt Zırıh

Idlib’e Region

İlgili resim

Turkish Names Arabic names

Idlib City: Cisir Şugur
Vericine ……………………………………………………. Adneniye
Kesır İde ……………………………………………………..Sukkeriye
Heyte ………………………………………………….…… Heyte
Selhap…………………………………………….…….…... Selhap
Mended ………………………………………….……….… Mended

 

Dera City Region

DERAA ile ilgili görsel sonucu

Turkish Names Arabic names

El Hara …………………………………………………….. El Hara
Neva ……………………………………………………… Neva
Şih Miskin ………………………………………………… Şih Miskin
El Sahva …………………………………………………….El Sahva
El Cize ……………………………………………………. El Cize
Balay ………………………………………………………..Balay
Barak …………………………………………………..….. Barak
Mearaba ………………………………………………..…. Mearaba
El Hirak ……………………………………………..…… El Hirak
El Gariye……………………………………………….…. El Gariye
Inhıl ………………………………………………….……. Inhıl
Maraba ……………………………………………………. Maraba

Conclusion
Due to various factors, as in the Turkmen´s in POEFCs, the Syrian Turkmen have been exposed to suppression and assimilation policies. Their cultural and economical status has deteriorated and they have remained an under-privileged population. They have been left alone and are not supported by the international community even by Turkey.
Turkmen are present in some of the opposition movements in Syria these days. Since March 2011 there have been many Turkmen who have lost their lives in the clashes that have marked all of Syria. There are also hundreds of Turkmen who have either disappeared or been arrested. The Turkmen do expect that Turkey will help bring the world’s attention to not only Syria, but their community within Syria. As such, they do want to see support expressed for the protection of their identity and rights within the framework of any new state system that we see emerge in Syria.
DR.MUKHTAR MOHAMED
References and notes
1- Jump up to: a b Phillips, David J. (1 January 2001). Peoples on the Move: Introducing the Nomads of the World. William Carey Library. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-87808-352-7. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
2- The Turkmen of Syria: exposed early to assimilation and deportation policies, Page: 4-5, Iraqi Turkmen Human Rights Foundation, February 15, 2012, Paper No: Art.1-A1512, http://www.turkmen.nl/1A_soitm/Art.1-A1512.pdf
3- World Population Review, Syrian Population 2013, "Other major groups in Syria are Kurds (2 million), Syrian Turkmen (0.75-1.5 million) and Assyrians (0.9 to 1.2 million)."
4- 4. Lloyd, Seton, “Twin Rivers, A brief History of Iraq From the earliest times to the present day”, Oxford
5- University Press, Ely House, London K.C., Second Edition, 1946. First Edition, 1943, p 90.
6- 5. Hasan Celal Güzel, Prof. Dr. Kemal Çiçek, Prof. Dr. Salim Koca, “Türkler” volume 20, P 594
7- 6. Britannica
8- 7. Faruk Sumer, Oguzlar (Turkmenler) Tarihleri- Boy teskilati – Destanlari, Istanbul 1992, p. 117
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20- 15. The free encyclopaedia Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syrian_Turks…
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32- 22. Ethnologue data from Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 14th Edition, copyright
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34- 23. Orhan Ketene, “The Syrian Turks: a Neglected Minority”, Eurasianet.com,
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39- 26. David Nissman, Turkmen Report, “The Turkmen of Iraq and Turkey”,
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42- Ahmad Hamdi and Hisham Salih.
43- http://www.yorturkvakfi.com/english/modules.php…
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